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Distribution and Population of Agarwood-Producing Plants in the Sorong Raya Area, West Papua, Indonesia.

Agarwood Gaharu Oud

Distribution and Population of Agarwood-Producing Plants in the Sorong Raya Area, West Papua, Indonesia.

Authors: Destri, Daseng Ahmad Samsudin, Eko Susanto, Rustandi, Zaenal Mutaqien, Emus.

Agarwood is a product of trees from the Thymeliaceae family that are infected with fungi and have high economic value.

However, the high demand and the rate of degradation of their natural habitats make these plant species increasingly difficult to find.

Geographical distribution of agarwood in Papua, especially Gyrinops spp. concentrated in Sorong and Nabire.

Information on the existence of this species is very limited, so surveys to reveal species diversity, habitat preferences and gaharu populations in the Sorong Raya area need to be carried out.

This activity is carried out in the following areas:

1. Indigenous Forest (HA) Klaben (Kab. Sorong),
2. HA La Klen (Kab. Maybrat),
3. Natural Tourism Park (TWA) Bariat (South Sorong Regency),

West Papua in February-March 2018. Recording of biotic and abiotic data collection was carried out to obtain an overview of their habitat references.

Population calculations were carried out on 0.5 Ha square footage at each location.

Found 1 species of gaharu-producing plant, Aquilaria filaria.

In general, gaharu-producing plants were found in karst areas with steep contours covered with very high carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) soils with moderate C/N ratios located in South Sorong Regency and Maybrat Regency.

This area is a typical lowland forest of Papua which is dominated by Pometia spp., Myristica spp., and Garcinia sp.

The population density of gaharu-producing plants in this area is estimated to be around 4-8 individuals per hectare.

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Agarwood from Borneo

Borneo’s Agarwood

Kalimantan’s forests are the world’s best producer of agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis).

Even the best species of North Kalimantan agarwood are worth billions of rupiah per kilogram.

Chairman of the Indonesian Agarwood Association Mashur Elias said there are several types of agarwood in Indonesia, namely those that grow in Kalimantan and Papua, in the West Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara regions.

“Of all these large species, the best and most in demand by the market is the gaharu that grows in North Kalimantan,” he said.

Indonesia itself is the largest agarwood exporting country in the world. Export value in 2013 reached 758 tons to the Middle East and China.

Because this plant cannot be harvested regularly, the price of agarwood is very high in the global market.

“This agarwood is used for medicine, for aromatherapy, perfume ingredients, then used for religious events.

The biggest use for therapy, the show, to the Middle East. But for the use of statues, prayer beads, it goes to China.

In 2013 yesterday we spent a quota of 758 tons. It is the largest quota in the world,” continued Mashur Elias.

The best quality agarwood takes a long time, even thousands of years.

This becomes an obstacle for farmers to develop these crops. This is because the community still relies on the best gaharu that grows in the forest.

“There are obstacles faced by agarwood farmers. In nature, gaharu can be available for hundreds of years, if for decades it is not possible. So that the microbes can interact with the gaharu tree to produce good quality.

Meanwhile, if the farmers want cultivation fast. What is clear is that people still take them from the forest,” he continued.

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沉香木 Chen Xiang Kambodi Oud Gaharu Agarwood Wholesale – 沉香木出售 – 沉香批发

沉香木 Chen Xiang Kambodi Oud Gaharu Agarwood Wholesale – 沉香木出售 – 沉香批发

Our company are 沉香木 Agarwood Wholesale 沉香批发 – 沉香木出售

沉香木出售

Agarwood (沉香木)

Agarwood, aloeswood, eaglewood or gaharuwood is a fragrant dark resinous wood used in incense, perfume, and small carvings. It is formed in the heartwood of aquilaria trees when they become infected with a type of mold.

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Jenis-Jenis Kayu Gaharu

Jenis-Jenis Kayu Gaharu

Dalam beberapa klasifikasi atau pengelompokan tumbuhan, tumbuhan penghasil gaharu ini dikelompkan atau masuk kedalam  divisi  Spermatophyta dan kelas Dicotyledoneae. Tumbuhan yang dapat menghasilkan pohon gaharu ini masuk dalam keluarga Thymeleaceae, Leguminoceae, dan Euforbiaceae.

Dri ketiga jenis yanga da diatas yang dapat menghasilkan gahru dengan kualitas terbaik yakni Genus Aquilaria, dari kelompok Aquilaria terdiri dari 3 spesies yang memiliki potensi menghasilkan gaharu dengan kualitas tinggi : Aquilaria beccanrian, Aquilaria microcarpa, dan Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.

1. Wilayah Penghasil Gaharu di Indonesia

Jika dilihat secara garis besar wilayah dengan suhu yang tinggi atau panas cenderung memiliki potensi untukmenghasilkan tanaman ini dan kualis yang dihasilkan bisa sangat tinggi. Suhu yang baik yaitu kisaran 28º-34ºC, dengan kelembaban 60-80%, dan curah hujan 1.000-2.000mm/tahun.

2. Ciri-ciri Kayu Gaharu

Secara umum ciri yang paling menonjol dari kayu gaharu ini adalah bisa hidup pada ketinggian 35-40 m dengan diameter yang dimiliki yaitu 60-70 cm.

Terdapat buah yang berbentuk oval yang tumbuh pada ujung pohon ini. Buahnya berwarna kemerahan dengan bulu-bulu halus yang ada pada permukaannya.

Ciri pohon gaharu dengan kualitas tinggi ada pada bagian tengah atau biasa disebut gubal yang berwarna hitam pekat dan jika dipoting akan mengeluarkan aroma yang sangat harum. Kebalikan dari gaharu yang berkualitas yangkni gaharu dengan kualitas rendah ditandai dengan gubalnya yang berwana coklat dan aroma yang dikeluarkan tidak terlalu kuat.

3. Kayu Gaharu Buaya

Untuk Jenis gaharu buaya yang satu ini harga jualnya relative lebih murah jika dibandingkandengan jenis yang lainnya, karena wanginya tidak begitu kuat seperti halnya gaharu beringin. Sedangkan untuk harganya bisa berada pada  kisaran Rp 500.000 dengan berat 500gram.

4. Kayu Gaharu Kalimantan

Selanjutnya Jenis gaharu Kalimantan ini banyak tumbuh dan ditemukan  di wilayah Indonesia bagian Timur, di antaranya  yakni Kalimantan dan Papua. dan untuk harga gaharu Kalimantan yang kisaran asli gelondongan Rp 4.000.000 dengan diameter 45cm.

5. Kayu Gaharu Hitam

Jenis Gaharu hitam atau yang bisa disebut gubal ini memiliki harganya sangat mahal disbanding yang lain, dikarenakan wanginya yang sangat kuat. Untuk harga dengan jenis ini yaitu kisaran Rp 20.000 sd Rp 35.000/ untuk per gramnya. Dibandingkan dengan harga per kilo nya kayu gaharu dengan kelas chip hitam – medang hitam bisa mencapai angka kisaran Rp 20.000.000 dan untuk gubalnya bisa mencapai Rp 35.000.000/kg.

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Types of Agarwood

Types of agarwood


In several classifications or groupings of plants, these gaharu-producing plants are grouped into the Spermatophyta division and the Dicotyledoneae class. Plants that can produce aloes are included in the Thymeleaceae, Leguminoceae, and Euforbiaceae families.
Of the three types above that can produce gahru of the highest quality, namely the Aquilaria Genus, from the Aquilaria group consisting of 3 species that have the potential to produce high quality agarwood: Aquilaria beccanrian, Aquilaria microcarpa, and Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.

  1. Agarwood impregnation area in Indonesia
    When viewed in broad terms, areas with high or hot temperatures tend to have the potential to produce this plant and the resulting quality can be very high. Good temperatures are in the range of 28º-34ºC, with humidity of 60-80%, and rainfall of 1,000-2,000mm / year.
  2. Characteristics of agarwood
    In general, the most prominent feature of this agarwood is that it can live at a height of 35-40 m with a diameter of 60-70 cm.
    There is an oval fruit growing at the tip of this tree. The fruit is reddish in color with fine hairs on its surface.
    The characteristics of the high quality agarwood tree are in the middle or so-called sapwood which is dark black and if it is rotated, it will give off a very fragrant aroma. The opposite of quality gaharu, which is low quality gaharu, is characterized by its brown color and the aroma that is released is not too strong.
  3. Gaharu Crocodile Wood
    For this type of crocodile gaharu, the selling price is relatively cheaper when compared to other types, because the fragrance is not as strong as banyan aloes. As for the price, it can be in the range of IDR 500,000 with a weight of 500 grams.
  4. Kalimantan agarwood
    Furthermore, this type of Borneo agarwood grows and is found in eastern Indonesia, including Kalimantan and Papua. and for the Kalimantan agarwood price, the original range of logs is Rp. 4,000,000 with a diameter of 45cm.
  5. Black agarwood
    This type of black agarwood or what can be called sapwood has a very expensive price compared to others, because of its very strong fragrance. The price of this type is in the range of IDR 20,000 to IDR 35,000 / for per gram. Compared to the price per kilo of agarwood with black chip-medang black class, it can reach the figure of around Rp. 20,000,000 and for sapwood it can reach Rp. 35,000,000 / kg.
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Manfaat Kayu Gaharu

Disaat kita membahas tumbuhan gaharu, banyak orang Indonesia yang belum ketahui menimpa tumbuhan luar biasa ini, terlebih soal macam khasiat kayu gaharu.

Perihal tersebut sesungguhnya bukan hal yang aneh, terlebih kayu gaharu hanya diketahui oleh golongan tertentu saja.

Sementara itu, kayu gaharu bersal dari Indonesia sering sekali diburu oleh para peminat dari dalam ataupun luar negari.

Mereka yakin kalau khasiat kayu gaharu telah dibuktikan oleh bermacam golongan selaku suatu kenyataan.

Dari mulai untuk keperluan bisnis, kedokteran seluruh jadi satu bagian khasiat kayu gaharu yang dapat Kamu rasakan.

Kamu dapat menyimak sebagian khasiat kayu gaharu yang sangat utama serta sangat diunggulkan.

7 Khasiat Kayu Gaharu buat Bermacam Keperluan

1. Membetulkan Pencernaan

Bermacam kendala pencernaan dipercaya bisa sembuh apabila diatasi dengan memakai kayu gaharu.

Khasiat kayu gaharu bagi sebagian orang bisa menanggulangi permasalahan semacam wasir, kembung, masuk angin, sampai diare.

Buat tujuan ini, Kamu dapat memakai kayu gaharu yang sudah diolah jadi minyak atsiri.

2. Menguntungkan Secara Ekonomi

Khasiat kayu gaharu yang awal ialah kayu gaharu dapat jadi ladang bisnis yang pasti menguntungkan secara ekonomi.

Perihal itu disebabkan harga kayu gaharu yang sangat tinggi baik itu yang masih berupa gelondongan maupun yang sudah diolah.

Satu gelondongan kayu gaharu berdiameter 30- 60 centimeter dihargai dekat Rp150. 000 per kilogramnya, sebaliknya kayu olahan berupa kepingan dihargai Rp400. 000 per kilogramnya.

Harga kayu gaharu apalagi dapat menggapai angka ratusan juta rupiah per kilogramnya apabila kayu gaharu tersebut mempunyai mutu besar serta terbaik.

3. Merendahkan Tekanan Darah

Tidak hanya dijadikan dalam bentuk minyak atsiri, olahan kepingan batang gaharu pula bisa dimanfaatkan buat menanggulangi permasalahan kesehatan.

Salah satunya ialah buat merendahkan tekanan darah dengan cara melenyapkan penyumbat pada pembuluh darah.

Triknya ialah, Kamu hanya perlu menyeduh kepingan kayu gaharu setelah itu meminum air seduhannya secara teratur.

4. Jadi Antioksidan Penting

Khasiat kayu gaharu selanjutnya ialah bisa jadi antioksidan berarti yang membantu mensterilkan serta menyehatkan badan.

Mengkonsumsi cairan seduhan batang pohon gaharu memiliki manfaat yang bisa mendetoksifikasi badan agar racun- racunnya terkuras serta dikeluarkan.

Efeknya diuritik yang dihasilkan membuat badan hadapi kenaikan buang air kecil buat tujuan detoksifikasi.

5. Menghindari Penyakit Tumor

Bagi sebagian orang, khasiat kayu gaharu tidak cuma bisa menyembuhkan penyakit ringan tetapi pula bermacam penyakit berat.

Salah satu penyakit berat yang dipercaya bisa sembuh dengan memakai obat olahan kayu gaharu merupakan penyakit tumor.

Khasiat tersebut mencuat sebab kayu gaharu mempunyai isi flavonoid yang bisa melindungi mutu serta kesehatan sel badan.

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The Benefits of Gaharu Wood

When we discuss the gaharu plant, many Indonesians don’t know about this extraordinary plant, especially about the kinds of properties of agarwood.

This is actually not a strange matter, especially because agarwood is only known by certain groups.

Meanwhile, gaharu wood originating from Indonesia is often hunted by domestic and foreign enthusiasts.

They believe that the properties of agarwood have been proven by various groups as a fact.

From starting for business, medical, and mystical needs, the whole thing becomes one part of the benefits of agarwood that you can feel.

On this basis you can listen to some of the very main and very favored properties of agarwood.

7 Benefits of Gaharu Wood for Various Purposes

  1. Corrects Digestion

Various digestive problems are believed to be cured if they are overcome by using agarwood.

The benefits of gaharu wood for some people can overcome problems such as hemorrhoids, bloating, colds, and diarrhea.

For this purpose, you can use agarwood which has been processed into essential oil.

  1. Economically Beneficial

The early benefits of gaharu wood were that it could be a business field that would be economically profitable.

This is due to the very large price of agarwood, both logs and processed.

One log of agarwood with a diameter of 30-60 centimeters fetches close to Rp150. 000 per kilogram, on the other hand, processed wood in the form of chips is valued at Rp. 400. 000 per kilogram.

The price of gaharu wood, moreover, can reach hundreds of millions of rupiah per kilogram if the agarwood has the greatest and best quality.

  1. Lower Blood Pressure

Not only used in the form of essential oils, processed agarwood stems can also be used to overcome health problems.

One of them is to lower blood pressure by removing blockages in blood vessels.

The trick is, you simply brew aloes wood chips and after that drink the steeping water regularly.

  1. So Important Antioxidants

The next benefit of gaharu wood is that it can be a significant antioxidant that helps sterilize and nourish the body.

Consuming the steeping liquid of the agarwood tree has benefits that can detoxify the body so that the toxins are drained and removed.

The resulting diuritic effect makes the body face increased urination for detoxification purposes.

  1. Avoiding Tumor Diseases

For some people, the benefits of gaharu wood are not only able to cure minor ailments but also various serious diseases.

One of the serious diseases that are believed to be cured by using gaharu wood products is a tumor.

These properties are sticking out because gaharu wood has flavonoid contents that can protect the quality and health of body cells.

  1. Preventing Jinn Constraints

You can be sure or not, but many people believe that agarwood has properties to prevent jinn problems.

That said, using agarwood as an accessory or for consumption can prevent the problem of the genie from harming you.

This matter applies to the invasion of the genie caused by your mistake or the genie sent by another party who vows to be evil against you.

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HARGA KAYU GAHARU

Saat ini kayu gaharau atau yang sering disebut agarwood sudah tidak asing lagi ditelinga masyarakat. Kayu gaharu ini sudah ditemukan ratusan tahun yang lalu oleh orang-orang zaman dulu. Kayu gaharu ini memiliki aroma khas yang wangi sehingga banyak sekali orang yang memburunya. Kayu gaharu ini memiliki banyak sekali manfaat, Maka tidak heran jika harga yang ditawarkan juga sangat fantastis. Kayu gaharu yang memiliki kuatitas yang terbaik ditandai dengan warna gubalnya yang hitam pekat dan apabila dipotong mengeluarkan aroma yang sangat wangi.

Untuk harga satu kilogram kayu gaharu bisa mencapai angka kisaran US$100 ribu atau setara dengan Rp1,5 miliar. Dengan harga ini bisa menjadikan kayu gaharu sebagai salah satu bahan atau kayu  mentahan yang termahal di dunia. Akan tetapi untuk bisa menghasilkan kualitas gaharu yang terbaik, pohon ini harus diperhatikan dalam perawatannya salah satunya yaitu pemberian tanaman naungan atau biasa sengaja ditumbuhkan jamur pada batang pohonnya.

Kayu gaharu memiliki jenis yang berdeda maka dari itu harganya juga akan berbeda.

Berikut pembagian kelas gaharu berdasarkan kualitasnya :

Kelas dan Keterangan

Gubal Kayu Gaharu Super,  hitam menyeluruh, sangat wangi, aroma kuat

Gubal Kayu Gaharu Luar biasa AB, hitam kecokelatan, wangi lagi, aroma kuat

Gubal Kayu Gaharu Sabah Super, hitam kecokelatan, wangi lagi, aroma agak kuat

Gubal Kayu Gaharu Kelas C, hitam dengan lebih banyak garis putih serta kepingan tipis, kayu cenderung rapuh

Tanggung A cokelat , kehitaman, wangi, aroma kuat

Sabang I cokelat bergaris, putih tipis, wangi lagi, aroma agak kuat

Tanggung AB cokelat bergaris, putih agak tebal, wangi lagi, aroma agak kuat

Tanggung C kecokelatan bergaris,  putih agak tebal, wangi lagi, aroma agak kuat

Kemedangan I, cokelat bergaris putih agak tebal, wangi lagi, aroma agak kuat

Kemedangan II, keabun- abuan bergaris gelap tipis, wangi kurang, aroma kurang kuat

Kemedangan III, putih keabuan, wangi kurang, aroma kurang kuat

Lalu apasih yang membuat harganya begitu mahal ?

Kayu atau pohon gaharu dengan Bahasa latin (Aquilaria malaccensis) merupakan  pohon asli hutan hujan khususnya di Asia Tenggara. Jika dikaji awalnya pohon ini tidak memiliki aroma yang sangat khas namun karena adanya reaksi yang terjadi pada inti kayu yang disebabkan oleh jamur Phialophora parasitica reaksi ini terjadi secara alami, reaksi inilah yang membuat pohon ini memiliki aroma yang khas.

Lalu bagaimana bisa jamur masuk kedalam batangnya ? ini bisa terjadi karena semut membuat lubang pada pohon senhingga membuat batang pohon berlubang dan pohon ini akan menggunakan getah nya untuk bisa menutupi lubang tersebut, karena adanya lubang ini maka organisme yang ada diluar akan mudah masuk kedalam batang pohon lalu  lama kelamaan akan membentuk menjadi gaharu.

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THE PRICE OF GAHARU WOOD

Currently, gaharau wood or what is often called agarwood is already familiar to the public’s ears. This agarwood has been found hundreds of years ago by ancient people. This agarwood has a distinctive aroma that is fragrant so that many people are hunting it. This agarwood has many benefits, so don’t be surprised if the price offered is also very fantastic. Gaharu wood which has the best strength is characterized by its dark sap color and when it is cut it gives off a very fragrant aroma.

For the price of one kilogram of gaharu wood, it can reach a figure in the range of US $ 100 thousand or equivalent to IDR 1.5 billion. With this price, agarwood is one of the most expensive materials or raw wood in the world. However, to be able to produce the best quality of agarwood, this tree must be considered in its maintenance, one of which is the provision of shade plants or usually deliberately growing mushrooms on the tree trunks.

Gaharu wood has different types, therefore the price will also be different.

The following is the division of agarwood classes based on their quality:

Class and Description :

Super Gaharu sapwood, all black, very fragrant, strong aroma

Gaharu sapwood Extraordinary AB, brownish black, fragrant again, strong aroma

Gaharu Sabah Super sapwood, brownish black, fragrant again, rather strong aroma

Gaharu Class C sapwood, black with more white lines and thin chips, the wood tends to be brittle

A brown, blackish, fragrant, strong aroma

Sabang I brown striped, thin white, fragrant again, slightly strong aroma

Tanggung AB brown striped, slightly thick white, fragrant again, rather strong aroma

Tanggung C brownish striped, slightly thick white, fragrant again, slightly strong aroma

Kemedangan I, slightly thick white striped chocolate, fragrant again, rather strong aroma

Kemedangan II, grayish thin dark stripes, less fragrant, less strong aroma

Kemedangan III, grayish white, less fragrant, less strong aroma

Then what makes it so expensive?

Gaharu wood or tree in Latin (Aquilaria malaccensis) is a tree native to rainforests, especially in Southeast Asia. At first, this tree does not have a very distinctive aroma, but because of the reaction that occurs in the wood core caused by the fungus Phialophora parasitica, this reaction occurs naturally, this reaction makes this tree has a distinctive aroma.

Then how do the mushrooms get into the stem? This can happen because the ants make a hole in the tree so that it makes a hollow tree trunk and this tree will use its sap to cover the hole, because of this hole the organisms that are outside will easily enter the tree trunk and then over time will form aloes.