History of Diving – Diving package
Diving activities carried out under the surface of the water, with or without the use of tools, to achieve a certain goal. Diving, as a profession, has been known for more than 5000 years ago. Divers ancient times may not be able to reach a depth of more than 100 feet. Usually this is done to take shells and pearls. In Greek history, Herodotus tells a diver named Scyllis employed Persian King Xerxes to take the treasure which sank in the 5th century BC.
Since ancient times, also used for military divers, like sank the enemy, cut anchors, and perforate the vessel from the bottom. Alexander Great¡ ± ¡° The sending divers to demolish the harbor in the city of Tyra (Lebanon) which then ruled in 332 BC. The divers earlier times also used to salvage sunken goods. In the first century BC, particularly in the western Mediterranean, the divers have been organized and the payment is set law. The payout depends on the depth of water that dive. If the depth is 24 feet, the diver paid o goods were saved. A depth of 12 feet then given 1/3, in a depth of 3 feet then awarded 1/10.
Divers earlier times only think that the air pipe length is very important in diving. Many design that uses long flexible pipe to the top of the float. Obviously this will not work well at a depth of 3 feet, because it would cause the diver to lack of oxygen and drown. The water pressure was also increased so that the pressing pipe and chest. This led to design diving equipment that uses air pipe impractical and difficult to do.
Breathing Bag – diving low
Painting Assyrians in the 9th century BC depicts a diver using air tanks made of leather. Yet another interpretation explains that it is the swimmer who uses the air tank to float in water.
Diving Bell-diving low
Around the year 1500-1800 has developed a diving bell, so divers can dive in a matter of hours. Diving bell is a bell-shaped devices which are basically open in the sea.
The first diving bell is very large so that divers can dive in a few hours. on further developments, diving bell is connected to the cable from the surface. This bell can not maneuver well. Divers can stay in or get out the bells for a while holding his breath.
The first diving bell was made in 1513. In 1680, adventurer named William Philip managed to lift the treasure sunk as much as $ 200,000 with this method. In 1690, an English astronomer Edmund Halley developed a diving bell, by submerging the barrel with ballast. 4 friends together it can last 1 1/2 hours in a depth of 60 feet in the river Thomas. 26 years later, by developing better equipment he can last 4 hours in a depth of 66 feet.
Diving Suit – diving low
In 1715, an Englishman named John Lethbridge developed a wetsuit. First he created a vat of wood covered with leather, is also equipped with glass on the front, and the holes for the arms. By using this equipment divers can do its job. This equipment is unloaded from the ship into the water. Diving suit is quite successful, because the depth of 60 feet and a normal operation for 34 minutes. But its weakness is almost the same as the diving bell, ie the limited air supply.
In 1823 John and Charles Deane, patented firefighter clothing. With these clothes, firefighters can get into the burning building. In 1828, the patented apparel for diving, which consists of clothing that can withstand the cold, a helmet, and a hose that connects to the surface. Air supply comes from surface and removed through the bottom of the helmet, so that if the position of the helmet upside down it will be quickly filled with water. Finally by Augustus Siebe, this helmet is equipped with a seal at the neck and drain valve.
Several inventors worked together to make wetsuits were equipped with weapons. These clothes can adjust the pressure so that the inhaled air pressure equal to the air pressure surface. Wetsuits is the development of clothing John Lethbridge.
The use of this clothing is questionable, because the shape is rather stiff to perform the task. In 1930 reached a depth of 700 feet, but the development has now reached 2000 feet of salt water (FSW).
Caissons – diving low
At the same time in the development of wetsuits, the inventors worked hard to develop the diving bell by increasing the size and increase the capacity of the air pump so as to maintain the air pressure and remove water in the bell. The rapid development of air pump adds to the size of the space that is wide enough so that some workers can work under water. This is helpful, especially in the construction of foot bridges or tunnels. The rooms were created called caissons, in French means a big box. Caisson is designed so that divers can easily reach the surface. By using a key system, the pressure inside the caisson can be set when divers get in and out. At the end of the caisson is growing fast. But with the use of this caisson disease dekompressi many workers, so that decompression sickness is also called caisson disease.
SCUBA (Self Contained Breathing Apparatus) – diving low
Diving equipment developed by John Deane, August Siebe did give divers a long time in the water, but the mobility is very less. The inventors find another method without lowering the level of danger. The best solution is to provide an air supply apparatus that can be taken. At first it did not work because of the limited capacity of the air pump to keep the air in high pressure. Once this can be overcome, then the air can be stored in a place the tube in a high pressure so as to provide air supply long enough.
Scuba develop rapidly that developed into three basic types:
Open Circuit Scuba (where the entire exhaust air directly released into the surrounding environment). Regulators developed by Benoist Rouquayrol, while the system was developed by Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Emile Gagnan.
Closed Circuit Scuba (where the entire exhaust air is inserted again into the system so it can be recycled). Henry A. Fleuss develop this system in 1876 and 1878, Fleuss then successfully tested the equipment in 1879 in a tank of water almost for 1 hour.
Semiclosed Circuit Scuba (a combination of both).
Type Diving – diving low
Gili Trawangan is the largest island in the cluster, the other island called Gili Meno and Gili water
Diving activities can be divided into several types depending on, among others, the depth, purpose and type of equipment used. If the depth is used as a measure, the dives can be distinguished:
Shallow dives: That dive to a maximum depth of 10 m
The dives were: Namely dive to a depth of <10 ms / d 30 m Diving in: dives with a depth> 30 m.
If based on the objectives to be achieved in these activities, the dive can be divided into:
1. Diving in the interests of national defense and security, among others:
Tactical (Combat) diving is diving for combat duties
Submarine Rescue, rescue submarines
Search & Rescue (SAR)
Inspection & Repair (inspection and repair)
2. The dive-dive of this type are generally carried out by the Armed Forces divers.
3. Diving dive professional komersial.Yaitu among others, for the benefit of the submerged construction, offshore (Off shore drilling), salvage, etc.
4. Scientific Diving (Scientific Diving). The dives are done for scientific purposes, among others: the study of biology, geology, and marine archeology in general.
5. Diving Sports (Sport Diving). The dives are done for the sake of maintaining or improving the health and fitness of body and soul.
To understand more clearly the types of dives, it is advisable to better read the first diving physics, and medical aspects. There are five common types of immersion according to the method, namely:
Breatholding or Free Diving: Also called skin diving or snorkeling, diving is the easiest and most parents. Do not use the air supply, so that depending on the length of time dive diver can hold your breath. Generally, divers use a mask to see underwater, fin for paddling, and snorkel to breathe while swimming at the water face down. Better still wearing a wet suit, in addition to avoiding hypothermia, can also increase buoyancy.
Scuba diving: Using tubes and pressure regulator. Scuba divers usually use tubes containing 72 or 90 cubic feet (cuft) with a pressure of 2200 or 3300 pounds per square inch gauge (PSIG). Such as snorkeling, scuba divers using masks, fins, snorkel, weights, BC, hours of diving, and depth gauge. To avoid hypothermia, divers use a wet suit. If the water temperature is <10 OC, typically using a dry suit. In addition to basic equipment, additional equipment is also required for security, navigation, and communications. Tethered or Surface Supplied Diving: Diving requires air supply from the surface continuously usually for military or commercial purposes. Saturation diving: The concept of this dive is that within 24 hours at a certain depth, pressure balancing the body's tissues have so time and decompression profile remains the same although the diver in the water for days. Before a dive, divers usually will stay in a pressurized space equal to the depth, after which it is transported into a capsule or a diving bell to a desired depth. One Atmosphere diving - diving low On this dive, divers digirup air pressure is set so that the same as at sea level (1 ATM). Leonardo Da Vinci had designed the same picture with the modern models (see Armored Diving Suit), but only realized in the 20th century. Rebreather diving - diving low The concept is to re-circulate air that has been disposed of divers, by removing carbon dioxide and adding oxygen before entering into the diver's body back. With the existence of this concept, will dive deeper and longer, and there are no air bubbles that might interfere with vision. But the diving equipment is very dangerous if not used and maintained properly. Mixed Gas diving - diving low On this dive did not use the free air, but using air with a certain composition. Regulated air composition can be used in berabagai other types of submarines. There are three kinds of air mixture used in diving: 1. Enhanced Nitrox (I, II) Nitrox is a gas mixture consisting of oxygen and nitrogen. Which is often used, there are two, namely Nitrox 1 (32% oxygen, 68% nitrogen) and Nitrox II (36% oxygen, 64%). Only Nitrox I may be used in the diving sport. Nitrox means actually said gas mixture with a composition of oxygen <21%. Typically used in submarines, and saturation diving, where the side effects of oxygen toxicity can dihindarai. Technically, if the oxygen content> 20% so-called “water enrich nitrox” (EAN) or “enrich oxygen water” (OEA). But in practice the term is often confused EAN and Nitrox. With the EAN dekompressi then the likelihood of disease is reduced, but the side effects will be greater oxygen poisoning. For recreational diving, its use is still under debate.
Advantages The use of EAN at a depth of 50-130 FSW:
Reduce the risk of decompression sickness.
Decrease the incidence of nitrogen poisoning.
Reduces residual nitrogen time (residual nitrogen).
Surface shorter time interval.
Reduce decompression time if the maximum bottom time elapsed.
Survace reduce the time interval between diving and flying.
The use of EAN losses at a depth of 50-130 FSW:
Require special training.
Using special equipment Nitrox.
Improve the oxidation tube scuba be quickly corroded.
Accelerate damage to the equipment.
Increase the risk of fire.
Greater risk of oxygen toxicity.
Besides nitrox, which is often used is heliox, a mixture of helium and oxygen. Helium is an inert gas, which replaces nitrogen. Its use eliminates the effects of oxygen toxicity and lower oxygen toxicity. Heliox dives suggested in> 130 FSW. Heliox very expensive.
Trimix is a gas mixture of helium, nitrogen and oxygen. Its composition depends on the profile that is used when diving. The US Navy used at depths> 190 FSW, and always used at extreme depths> 600 FSW.
Which are used in recreational diving is kind helitrox ie Trimix oxygen enriched. Mixture that is often used is the TX 26/17 (26% oxygen, 17% helium and 57% nitrogen). Some sports divers deaths associated with the use heliox, so the use of Trimix helitrox for recreational diving is still debated.
Source: USN Diving Manual 6th
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