Physicals Aspects of Diving – Diving Tutorial – Lombok Diving
Knowledge of the laws of physics that is closely associated with diving is a necessary condition for safe diving techniques. Many health problems dives that are directly attributable to the influence of the physiology of these laws to humans. To understand the basic principles of safe diving, the diver must recognize aspects of physics-related pressure and density of liquids and gases. However, this knowledge is very useful for doctors who handle cases of divers.
Pressure – Lombok Diving
The air pressure at sea level at a temperature of 0 ° C, is essentially caused by heavy pressure asmofir thereon. The constant pressure of around 760 mmHg (14.7 psi) and used as a legal basis for the atmosphere (1 ATA).
Under the Pascal law which states that the pressure on the surface of the liquid will be spread evenly in all directions and is not reduced. At each place below the water surface the pressure will be increased by 760 mmHg (1 atmosphere) for each depth of 10 meters. Thus the addition of the surface of the water pressure with the pressure of the water depth is called Atmospheric pressure Absolute (ATA).
Laws Gas – Lombok Diving
Air breathed normal air that human beings are made up of the following components:
78% Nitrogen (N2)
21% oxygen (O2)
0.93% argon (Ar)
0.04% carbon dioxide (CO2)
The rest noble gases (He, Ne, etc.)
In diving, the gas laws applicable because of the pressure and volume of gas in and out of the human body change according to circumstances. There are several gas laws must be understood, among others:
1. Boyle’s Law – Lombok Diving
The law confirms the relationship between pressure and volume. The volume of a gas collection will be inversely proportional to the absolute.
This means that when the pressure increases, the volume of a gas collection will be reduced.
Applications Boyle’s Law
A diver who breathes full (6 liters) at a depth of 10 meters (2 ATA), by holding the breath and then rise to the surface (1 ATA), the air in the lungs will double to 12 liters. It is warned not to hold your breath when the rise to the surface when using scuba diving equipment. This law applies to the cavities that exist in the human body, where the divers will get direct pressure while diving.
2. Law Charles – Lombok Diving
Is a law that states that if the pressure remains constant, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to absolute temperature, if the constant volume / fixed and the temperature increases, the pressure will increase as well. This law relates to the compression of the gas collection that is against diving equipment: tubes, regulators, chamber etc.
Application of Law Charles
In store tubes then place should be taken to avoid heat or hot spot. Bringing tube was filled for a long time should be closed so avoid direct sunlight.
If this is neglected, the tube temperature will rise causing pressure to rise so that the tube burst.
3. Dalton’s Law – Lombok Diving
According to this law, the total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressure of the gases in the mixture TSB. At sea level, the pressure of each atmospheric constituent gases, namely:
Then at a depth of 40 meters, the pressure of each gas, namely:
This means that the oxygen we breathe at a depth of 40 meters is equal to breathe pure oxygen at the surface. Nitrogen that is inhaled is also a growing number of nearly 5 times more than it was at sea level.
Dalton’s Law Application
This relates to the medical aspects, namely when we inhale oxygen, there will be plenty of oxygen poisoning. The amount of oxygen will depress the respiratory center in the brain that controls breathing is disrupted and there is accumulation of carbon dioxide in the body that cause death. The amount of inhaled nitrogen will reduce the work of the central nervous system, so that divers decreased alertness.
4. Gay-Lussac’s Law – Lombok Diving
According to this law, can be explained also about the explosion when filling scuba tube.
When we fill scuba tube, where its volume is constant, with increasing pressure tube then The temperature also increased. This is dangerous because before reaching the desired pressure, the tube may burst.
Gay-Lussac’s Law Application
At the moment we fill the tube, the tube should be filled while they will be soaked in a bucket of cold water, so that the temperature of the tube remains cool.
5. Henry’s Law – Lombok Diving
This law expresses the solubility of a gas in a liquid. Solubility also depends on the temperature and the type cairan.Makin in and the longer we dive the gas absorbed by the body more and more because of the higher gas partial pressure. The colder the water temperature, the more gas that is dissolved in it.
Applications Henry’s Law
This is what requires us to rise to the surface very slowly so that the dissolved gas does not turn into a bubble.
6. Law of Archimedes (Buoyancy) – Lombok Diving
Archimedes law says that if an object enters into a liquid then the object gets buoyancy which is proportional to the amount of fluid it displaces.
To determine whether an object is floating or not, we must know the density (weight / volume) of the object. If the density of objects smaller than the water these objects will float, and vice versa. The more dense a liquid, the greater the buoyancy because it has a large specific gravity. This is related to fresh water and sea water, which has a different density. The sea water is denser than fresh water, so divers-divers and boats float higher than seawater rather than freshwater.
Buoyancy (bouyancy) there are three kinds:
Positive buoyancy (positive bouyancy): when an object floats.
Negative buoyancy (negative bouyancy): When an object sinks.
Neutral buoyancy (neutral bouyancy): if the object can be floated.
Bouyancy is a very important factor in the dives. During the move in the water with scuba, divers must maintain a neutral position bouyancy.
Each diver buoyancy level is influenced by several factors, heavy tools used can cause a diver to drown. Cylinder containing compressed air will be more floating when air is used to make it lighter. Wetsuits (wet suit) that consists of cells filled with air foam rubber, when the depth increases, the volume of air in the cells is reduced thereby reducing buoyancy. Vests which can inflate (Buoyancy Compensator s) can be filled with air to obtain positive buoyancy. When divers breathe in breast volume will increase, which tends to make it float, was when he gave up will tend to sink. So often a diver breathed upon leaving the surface to harness the influence and it helped him to get down.
With knowledge of the above, diaharapkan a diver will be able to determine its own buoyancy as needed and can predict who will be wearing scuba gear, so that a diver will be able to regulate their buoyancy to dive comfort and security.
Temperature – Lombok Diving
Water temperatures are around the diver determine the comfort and duration of dives to the maximum. Almost all the water colder than normal temperature of the human body, because it was a diver will lose body heat to the water. In the saturation diving, the diver’s body temperature maintenance becomes a major need, the water temperature will go down significantly more simultaneously with increasing depth.
The largest temperature changes occur in the first 10 meters, due to the loss of most of the sun’s heat at deeper depths. Cold water can cause physiological disorders such as vertigo and headaches. For that dibituhkan wetsuits as needed.
Body heat can be lost when it is in the water in several ways:
Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from molecule to molecule. Water has 25 times the capacity of conduction of the air. So the speed of heat loss in water 25 x faster than in the air.
Convection is the transfer of heat by the movement of water currents.
Radiation is the transfer of heat by way of radiant without any intermediary substance.
Evaporation of sweat from the skin and release of water vapor from the lungs causing heat loss from the body significantly.
When seoseorang dive deeply using Helium-Oxygen (Heliox), loss of body heat can cause serious clinical hypothermia. At the very deep dives with heliox gas mixtures, respiratory gas is heated to avoid hypothermia.
Sight and Light – Lombok Diving
So that divers can work well, it must be equipped to see as clearly as possible. The human eye requires light to see anything. Whatever people see is a picture that is created by the reflection of light from the object being viewed. Rays in the water is influenced by several factors that can directly affect the ability to see a diver and interpret what he sees.
TSB main factors are:
Diffusion: the transmission of light by water molecules and particles.
Absorption: the ability to change the color and intensity of light.
Refraction: redirects incoming light from one media to another media
Reflection: the return of sunlight to the atmosphere that the surface of the water; will be reflected (reflected) depending on the angle at the time of the water.
Water under very poor eyesight caused by differences in light refraction under water. This problem can be partially overcome by the use of masks, where there is a layer of air between the eye and water, although it improves vision under water but can lead to a false impression of going the distance and make objects look far are near (± 3 / 4nya) and the little ones will look bigger (± 1.5 time). Air has a refractive index of 1, the glass mask refractive index from 1.5 to 1.8, while the water refractive index of 1.33.
Lenses can improve vision (corrective lenses) can be mounted on a mask for those who wear glasses. Use of contact lenses (contact lenses) under water has been managed well to use on face mask or direct use.
Visual acuity under low water caused by the scattering of light that make up the shadow of delicate objects floating in the water. Under the water also affects the color which does not look the same as the surface. This is due to the absorption (absorption) to a wavelength of color were not as great.
The sun’s rays can not penetrate more than 1650 ft, although in very clear water. In the air, the speed of light is 186,000 miles / sec, in the water speed was reduced to 135 miles / sec. At depth, the sun is a combination of the colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple will be seen as a dark blue color. Because absorption can affect the color of objects in the water.
Water absorption of the sunlight is as follows:
Voice law – Lombok Diving
Underwater sound is strongly influenced by penghantarannya by fluid media. The speed of sound under water four times faster than air, but it will be faster to lose energy when emitted into the water. The sound of the air will rapidly lose energy when emitted into the water, such that the water will be difficult to listen to the sound made in the air near the surface of the water.
The human ear is created to localize the direction of sounds in the air. Hearing divers under water will be reduced due to the influence of water on the eardrum, making it difficult for divers to localize the direction of sounds in water. Underwater noise will be delivered to the auditory organ via bone head better than the eardrum.
Wearing headgear will further reduce the threshold of hearing, it would be difficult for divers to localize the direction of sounds in water. The speed of sound in air is 1100 ft / sec while in the water on average 4900 ft / sec. The sound produced by the beating scuba steel tube with metal objects (eg with a knife subs) can be heard at a considerable distance by other divers.
By studying the physics associated with the expected dive diver can know how to cope with the dangers that may arise due to human physiology dives. Among diver will perform equalization when entered in the depth of water, do not hold your breath during the climb to the surface and always carry peyelaman without decompression (if necessary learn diving table), and can carry out dives safely and comfortably.
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